Accessing Logs, Metrics and more

THORNode commands

The Makefile provide different commands to help you operate your THORNode.

There are two types of make commands, READ and WRITE.

Run make help at any stage to get an exhaustive list of help options and how to interact with the system.


Read commands simply read your node state and doesn't commit any transactions.

To get information about your node on how to connect to services or its IP, run the command below. You will also get your node address and the vault address where you will need to send your bond.

make status


Write commands actually build and write transactions into the underlying statechain. They cost RUNE from your bond, currently 0.02, but you can check this on the /constants endpoint "CLICOSTINRUNE". This will post state in the chain which will be now updated globally. The RUNE fee is to prevent DDoS attacks.

Send a set-node-keys to your node, which will set your node keys automatically for you by retrieving them directly from the thor-daemon deployment.

make set-node-keys


Note, all of these should already be installed from make tools. However you can install them separately useing the DEPLOY tabs below.

To access the tools, navigate to the ACCESS tabs below.

All of these commands are to be run from node-launcher


It is recommended to deploy a logs management ingestor stack within Kubernetes to redirect all logs within a database to keep history over time as Kubernetes automatically rotates logs after a while to avoid filling the disks. The default stack used within this repository is Loki, created by Grafana and open source. To access the logs you can then use the Grafana admin interface that was deployed through the Prometheus command.

You can deploy the log management automatically using the command below:

make install-loki

This command will deploy the Loki chart. It can take a while to deploy all the services, usually up to 5 minutes depending on resources running your kubernetes cluster.

You can check the services being deployed in your kubernetes namespace loki-system.


It is also recommended to deploy a Prometheus stack to monitor your cluster and your running services.

You can deploy the metrics management automatically using the command below:

make install-metrics

This command will deploy the prometheus chart. It can take a while to deploy all the services, usually up to 5 minutes depending on resources running your kubernetes cluster.

You can check the services being deployed in your kubernetes namespace prometheus-system.

As part of the tools command deployment, you also have deployed a Prometheus stack in addition to the Elasticsearch in your Kubernetes cluster. All CPU, memory, disk space, and THORNode / THORChain custom metrics are automatically being sent to the Prometheus database backend deployed in your cluster.

You should have available different dashboards to see the metrics across your cluster by nodes, deployments, etc, and also a specific THORNode / THORChain dashboard to see the THORChain status, with current block height, how many validators are currently active and other chain related information.

Click the πŸ” SEARCH ICON to find the list of dashboards

For a more in-depth introduction of Grafana, please follow the documentation here.

Kubernetes Dashboard

You can also deploy the Kubernetes dashboard to monitor your cluster resources.

make install-dashboard

This command will deploy the Kubernetes dashboard chart. It can take a while to deploy all the services, usually up to 5 minutes depending on resources running your kubernetes cluster.

View your kubernetes dashboard by running the following:

make dashboard

Backing up a THORNode

You should backup your THORNode in case of failures. By default, if you are using the Kubernetes deployments solution, all the the deployments are automatically backed up by persistent volume disks. Depending on your provider, the volumes are usually available in the provider administration UI, for example in AWS, you can find those volumes in your regular console, in the region you chose to deploy your Kubernetes cluster.

Again by default, with Kubernetes, by using persistent volumes used in the default configuration, you are already protected again restart failures at container level, or node failures. As long as you don’t specifically use the destroy commands from the Makefile or manually delete your Kubernetes deployments, your volumes will NOT be deleted at any time.

It is still recommended, as any project, to have different backups on top of those volumes to make sure you can recover in admin error deleting those volumes or other Kubernetes resources that would imply deleting those volumes.

For AWS, you can easily setup in your console to have snapshots of your cluster volumes be taken every day. For other provider there can be different ways to achieve this as well either manually or automatically.

It is up to the node operator to setup those extra backups of the core volumes to be able to recover in any kind of failures or human errors.

Some volumes would be more critical than others, for example Midgard deployment are also by default backed up by persistent volumes, so it can recover in case of container restarts, failures or node failures and the deployment being automatically scheduled to a different node, but if you were to delete the Midgard volume, it would reconstruct its data from your THORNode API and events from scratch. For that specific service having extra backups might not be critical, at the time of the writing of that document, Midgard implementation might change in the future.

At minimum you should also securely backup your node keys: node_key.json and priv_validator_key.json. Do this as follows:

kubectl get pods -n thornode

Copy the thornode pod name, e.g. thornode-abcdefg-hijkl and replace with {thornode pod name} below:

kubectl cp thornode/{thornode pod name}:root/.thornode/config/node_key.json node_key.json

kubectl cp thornode/{thornode pod name}:root/.thornode/config/priv_validator_key.json priv_validator_key.json

For full disaster recovery (complete loss of cluster), it is possible to issue LEAVE command from the original BOND wallet and manual return of funds from your Yggdrasil. In this case you need a secure backup of make mnemonic (Yggdrasil mnemonic) and a working wallet that did the original BOND. See Leaving.

Node Security

The following are attack vectors:

  1. If anyone accesses your cloud credentials, they can log in and steal your funds

  2. If anyone accesses the device you used to log into kubernetes, they can log in and steal your funds

  3. If anyone accesses your hardware device used to bond, they can sign a LEAVE transaction and steal your bond once it is returned

  4. If anyone has your Yggdrasil make mnemonic phrase, including in logs, they can steal your funds

  5. If any GitLab repo is compromised and you git pull any nefarius code into your node and run make <any command>, you can lose all your funds.

Checking diffs

Prior to git pull or make pull updates, review node-launcher repo diffs:

git fetch
git diff master..origin/master

Regularly review patches in GitLab:

When chain clients have updated tags (version number or sha256), inspect the GitLab diffs for the relevant image in and ensure the CI build checksum matches the expected. This ensures you are executing code on your node that you are satisfied is free from exploits. Some images such as Ethereum use the 'official' docker image, e.g.





Finding Yggdrasil addresses

To find your Yggdrasil addresses, firstly navigate to

  1. Find your node address and click on the link.

Alternatively, visit any thorchain endpoint using your node address from make status:<Node Address>

Copy your secp256k1 public key and put it here:<Public Key>

And look for addresses array at the bottom.

Finding Yggdrasil Private Key

  1. Run make mnemonic and securely store this.

  2. Visit - or for more safety, clone the GitHub repo and open src/index.html offline.

  3. Paste in your mnemonic and choose RUNE - THORChain from the drop-down list.

  4. Your private key string is the first one: m/44'/931'/0'/0/0

Dealing with slash

When running a node, it is quite common to get slashed. The network relies on slash points to rate node quality. When your node is slashed, the first thing you need to do is run make status, and make sure all your chains are 100% in sync. If any of the external chains are not 100% in sync, then it will cause node to be slashed due to missing observations.

The best prevention is to have a cluster with lots of fast resources (cpu, memory, IO, network) and good backups/redundancy to prevent downtime.

Unfortunately even when your node is fully in-sync, it is still possible to be slashed due to external chain events. Here are some of the scenarios:

600 point slash (isolated)

When a node is slashed 600 points, it is typically because the yggdrasil vault failed to send an outbound transaction (more accurately: the transaction it was tasked to perform wasn't mined within a specified time limit). This most likely to happen on ETH chain. Here is what you need to check:

  1. Find your Yggdrasil ETH address. Use the previous instructions.

  2. Visit and paste in your Yggdrasil ETH address.

Potential problem 1: Transaction ran out of Gas (wrong estimate):

Cause: The network uses geth inbuilt eth_estimateGas function to estimate how much gas to set as limit for a transaction. On rare occasions this can return a number too low causing the transaction to fail. In this case there is nothing you can do - just wait it out. Note: your Yggdrasil ETH vault is now insolvent by a small amount of gas burned in the failed transaction that you will need to personally top-up prior to LEAVE. See section on LEAVE for more details.

Potential problem 2: Transaction didn't mine after 15mins

Cause: External unexpected Gas price hike. The network uses a 1.5x the previous N blocks as the gas rate to use. If there is a sudden increase in Gas price required due to unforseen external events, the transaction may not be mined. In order to make sure customer is paid in a reasonable time, there is a auto cancel transaction process build in bifrost. The network will keep monitoring the outbound transactions and if any of the outbound transaction signed out by yggdrasil vault didn't commit after 15 minutes, it will automatically cancel it and assign to another node to send.

You should be able to see a transaction like the following, which is sending 0 ETH back to itself which cancels anything pending:

600 point slash (repeated)

If your node is slashed 600 points continuously, it is likely your ETH vault is stuck or transactions sent to your local geth aren't propagated fully into mempools used by miners. This might happen if your local ethereum-daemon doesn't sync well with the network, even though it reports 100% in sync.

  1. Run make logs and choose bifrost

  2. Search your logs for cancel and look for transactions such as:

{"level":"info","service":"bifrost","module":"ethereum","time":"2021-05-28T14:43:58Z","message":"broadcast cancel transaction , tx hash: 0xec396286e54f9a95081e60424c73fcc0e580c47d2ffacb216ad9ef2d9c787082, nonce: 25 , new tx hash:0x5823abbee421f4c2ce230f5e7808b4dc6728ebeb5e21b62d95b812144d522672"}
  1. Find the last cancel tx in the logs (with the highest nonce).

  2. Search etherscan for the new tx hash transaction ID.

  3. Your geth is stuck and out of sync if etherscan does NOT find the new tx hash cancelled transaction. If you do not find your tx in etherscan - proceed as follows:

  4. Find the lowest nonce from Etherscan:

  5. Go to and paste your yggdrasil ETH address in the search box

  6. Find the last successful transaction send out from your yggdrasil ETH address. It is the top transaction in the list:

  • Click the transaction. Note the nonce used in the last good transaction (e.g. 39), and then plus 1 (e.g. 40). This is the lowest stuck tx nonce.

  1. Find the highest stuck nonce from your local geth:

  2. make shell then choose ethereum-daemon

  3. geth attach

  4. eth.getTransactionCount('{YOUR YGGDRASIL ETH ADDRESS}','pending') -- this is the highest stuck tx nonce

  5. exit and exit again.

  6. If the highest nonce is larger than your lowest nonce, it means there are a few transactions sent and stuck in the mempool of your local ETH daemon. You need to unstuck these from highest to lowest.

  7. Update index.js lastPendingNonce and firstStuckNonce. Also put in your hex encoded private key to KEY variable. Remember to add the 0x prefix which bip39 calculator above will not have.

  8. Update gasPrice to a very high gas price. The price should be higher than all the transactions stuck in the mempool. Recommend to spend more than 200 Gwei or double the highest from (which ever is higher).

  9. Run the script using node index.js. Note: you may need to install some dependecies first with npm install ethers. The output should look like:

    CANCELLING 39 for 0x3eb68bF15A7A6769219A66C5c493fa7C40511E19
    CANCELLING 38 for 0x3eb68bF15A7A6769219A66C5c493fa7C40511E19
    CANCELLING 37 for 0x3eb68bF15A7A6769219A66C5c493fa7C40511E19
    CANCELLING 36 for 0x3eb68bF15A7A6769219A66C5c493fa7C40511E19
    CANCELLING 35 for 0x3eb68bF15A7A6769219A66C5c493fa7C40511E19
    CANCELLING 34 for 0x3eb68bF15A7A6769219A66C5c493fa7C40511E19
    CANCELLING 33 for 0x3eb68bF15A7A6769219A66C5c493fa7C40511E19
    CANCELLING 32 for 0x3eb68bF15A7A6769219A66C5c493fa7C40511E19
    CANCELLING 31 for 0x3eb68bF15A7A6769219A66C5c493fa7C40511E19
    CANCELLING 30 for 0x3eb68bF15A7A6769219A66C5c493fa7C40511E19
    CANCELLING 29 for 0x3eb68bF15A7A6769219A66C5c493fa7C40511E19
  10. make restart and choose ethereum-daemon

Constantly accumulating slash points

Problem: Sometimes bifrost fails to forward observations to thornode, due to an account number / sequence number mismatch. Here is what you need to check:

  1. run make logs , and choose bifrost

  2. Search your bifrost logs for {"level":"error","service":"bifrost","module":"observer","error":"fail to send the tx to thorchain: fail to broadcast to THORChain,code:32, log:account sequence mismatch, expected 26806, got 26807: incorrect account sequence","time":"2021-05-30T07:28:18Z","message":"fail to send to THORChain"} 3. Solution: make restart and choose bifrost

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